MOST FORTIFIED BUILDINGS IN THE WORLD
MOST FORTIFIED BUILDINGS IN THE WORLD
These are complex intricate trails, steep stairs of the hundreds of stone steps and dangerous suspension bridges, laid over bottomless chasms. Some outstanding historic buildings are properly insulated from the world, from ancient times they served the sole purpose — to protect the owners against intruders. Beautiful castles and monasteries are located on the cliffs, peaks towering cliffs and difficult mountainous terrain, where you can easily get lost without a guide. The more interesting discerning travelers to visit these attractions are difficult, each of which holds a lot of secrets.
Castle Bled, Slovenia
One of the most inaccessible facilities in the world to be found in Slovenia, where at the top of 130-meter cliffs located ancient castle of Bled. He is one of the oldest in the country, Bled Castle is located in an incredibly beautiful area, near the eponymous lake. A rocky cliff on top of which it is located, literally hanging over the lake shore and is surrounded by dense forest. Surprisingly, build a castle in this difficult terrain people have managed to more than a thousand years ago, the first official mention of the castle date back to 1004 year.
For hundreds of years the castle was able to save a lot of old architectural elements, is considered to be the oldest tower in the Romanesque style, it was many years ago was used to observe the surroundings. The appearance of an ancient castle has changed greatly during the Middle Ages, it was supplemented by new buildings, including the stone towers and protective walls. Entrance to the castle hidden in the thick woods, it leads to a narrow stone staircase, you find among ancient trees without a conductor, too, will not be easy.
In the castle grounds is conducted guided tours, during which you can learn a lot of interesting stories about his appearance and even assess the internal situation of some buildings. A significant part of the castle is a historic museum, where a rich collection of everyday objects, old clothing and weapons. Many tourists tend to visit these amazing places at sunset, at nightfall high cliff and it is located on an ancient castle is decorated with spectacular lighting.
Trosky Castle, Czech Republic
Year of appearance: 14th century. In the vicinity of Prague is amazing and full of mysteries Trosky castle, which for hundreds of years was considered the most impregnable in the Czech Republic. The castle was built in the rocks, or rather, between the two craters of ancient extinct volcano. Sami craters builders also not left unattended, they were placed in the tower of the fortress. Together with the dark rocks impregnable fortress looks inimitable contrast dark shades of the forest surrounding the cliff.
Despite the fact that the first official mention of the castle date from the late 14th century, historians believe that it was built much earlier. For hundreds of years, the fortress managed to successfully repel the siege of the Swedish conquerors for centuries it was in complete desolation. The most romantic era for the castle began in the 19th century, when its owner was Alois. During this period, visited the fortress in search of inspiration, artists and poets from around the world, with its Maiden Tower offers a splendid view of the surroundings.
It is noteworthy that this tower is the oldest element of construction, during a severe fire in 1428, she was the only surviving building. Despite its uniqueness and attractiveness, Trosky castle is one of the most mysterious and unexplored. All documents that might shed light on the history of its creation, burned in numerous fires. Currently Historic Site is administered by the Heritage Institute, despite its impressive age, it is well preserved and open to the public.
Height: from 300 to 663 meters above sea level. The most inaccessible city in the world ancient Pitigliano can be called bold, located in the beautiful Tuscany. This ancient city was literally built on the cliffs, stone structures and protective walls are integral with the steep cliffs. According to historical records, hundreds of years ago were engaged in settlement basis Etruscans. They specifically chose the site of a high hill, which is surrounded on three sides by impregnable cliffs to best protect themselves from invaders.
Ancient buildings, which can be seen today, located at an altitude of 300 to 663 meters above sea level, many buildings and fastening walls could perfectly preserved to our days. The amazing Pitigliano for many hundreds of years, lives his life and is considered one of the most beautiful places in Tuscany. Travelers who are not afraid to go a long way and climb the highest hill, have an opportunity to stroll through the enchanting medieval streets and see a lot of unique attractions.
Pitigliano is often called «Little Jerusalem», a significant part of its current population is Jewish. One of the main symbols of the city is the historic Orsini Palace, which was built in the 16th century and is now the archaeological museum location. Largely thanks to the unique location of the city managed to keep its unique medieval appearance, on the territory of Pitigliano completely absent modern buildings. Walking through the old town will be a real journey into the past.
Castle Lichtenstein, Germany
Year of appearance: 13th century. Height: 817 meters. In Germany, among inaccessible and fascinating Bavarian Alps, you can find the amazing castle of Liechtenstein. It was placed on top of one of the steep rocky cliffs, the height of which is approximately 817 meters. Honau Mountain area, which hosts the castle is considered one of the most scenic in the country, is inaccessible cliffs alternated with incredibly beautiful forests. At first glance it is difficult to assume and how it is possible to climb to the top of the rock and enter the territory of an old castle.
Guests of this unique sights you must first climb a mountain on a steep stone staircase, and then go on a suspension bridge, which was routed over the gorge. The first fortification on the site of the castle was built in the early 13th century, hundreds of years of existence of the castle is completely destroyed and twice rebuilt. In the early 19th century, after a recovery lock some time belonged to King Frederick I, who used it as his hunting lodge.
The last owner of the castle was Duke Wilhelm Urach to him Liechtenstein owes its current impressive views. Under the leadership of the Duke of the last large-scale restructuring of the castle was carried out, today it is considered a perfect example of the architectural monument in the Romanesque style. In the old castle a lot of interesting secrets, so the room of the lower level were carved into the rock, to visit them will be interesting to all fans of unusual excursions. On the grounds of the castle offers a great view of the mountains, many experienced travelers prefer to visit this place in the fall or spring.
Pena Palace, Portugal
Year of appearance: 1840. In Portugal, the Pena Palace is a landmark of national significance. It is located in the immediate vicinity of the town of Sintra, the palace was built on top of a rocky cliff in 1840. Externally, the palace resembles the classic medieval castle, while his real age barely exceeds 150 years. The initiator of the construction of the fortress was the king Fernando II, who used the majestic building as a summer residence.
Initially, in the rocks, where it was decided to build a castle, it has a small old monastery. At the time of the start of construction for many years he was in disrepair, so nothing prevented begin to build in the rocks majestic building of impressive proportions. The last owner of the castle was Queen Amelia in 1910 she was forced to leave his residence and flee from Portugal. In many rooms and halls of the palace managed to save the situation, which took place during the last owner.
After the revolution the palace was converted into a museum, it holds an interesting collection of works of art, antique furniture and jewelery. Walking through the extensive grounds of the palace, too, will give a lot of impressions, you can endlessly admire the carved arches in the Moorish style, antique sculptures and landscape decorations. Surrounds Palace massive forest, an area of over 200 hectares. At different times, the owners of the castle were planted on its adjacent territory a lot of exotic plants, so the excursion nature lovers.
Monastery Phuktal, India
Year of appearance: 12th century. In India, one of the most remote and isolated structures is Phuktal monastery. This isolated Buddhist monastery was founded in the 12th century, it was built on the slope of the high stone cliff. At first glance it may seem that the construction can be broken down at any time, in fact, the monastery has existed for over 800 years, and it is now home to about 70 monks. To reach the monastery, you can only walk for a secret mountain path, to find that a man unprepared will be almost impossible.
One of the main features of the architectural complex is situated above it a natural cave, which is also interesting to visit and hides many secrets. Up until the mid-19th century, the monastery remained secret, in 1826 he was visited by the famous Orientalist of Hungary Sandor Csoma de Koros. The researcher spent in the monastery for over a year, learning the language and customs of the monks, it can be considered a «pioneer» amazing sights.
Despite the fact that now the monastery is open to tourists, it has not lost its identity. Travellers will be able to stroll along the stone corridors of an ancient monastery, admire the frescoes adorning the walls, and visit the monastery located in the old library. It is important to bear in mind that the road to the monastery is not easy and starts over many kilometers away from the cliff. Usually, in order to overcome a long way to tour takes about two days, during the campaign they will have the opportunity to visit several picturesque Indian villages.
Predjama Castle, Slovenia
Year of appearance: 1202. Height: 123 meters. Slovenia is another awesome castle among the most impregnable in the world — Predjama. It was built on the rock wall at a height of 123 meters, the age of the castle is more than 700 years. The first official mention of the castle dates back to the year 1202, for hundreds of years, the castle belonged to various orders of chivalry, it was performed jousting and medieval banquets.
Despite the difficult location, in the 17th century clever robbers managed to sneak into the castle and make out of it a lot of valuable things. After that, the owner decided to build a castle secret Vipavsky course, for many years a way to sneak into the castle was known only favorites. Unfortunately, the secret could not survive the move to the present day. Modern visitors there is only one way to get into the territory of the castle — go through the upper course, which starts in the mountains and runs through the forest.
For many years, the castle is a regular venue for the interesting historical events, here spend jousting tournaments and banquets. One of the main events dedicated Erazimu Iamskoy — one of the most famous owners of the castle. Visit the castle can be only in the period from May to September, all the excursions spend accompanied by cavers. Upper course is a series of impassable forests and mountain caves, which have chosen the habitat of a colony of bats. It is because of these small inhabitants of the castle is closed to most of the time when bats hibernate with the arrival of cold weather, walk through the caves and they can not be disturbed.
Monastery of St. George Hozevita, Israel
Year of occurrence: 6th century. In Israel, too, there is the construction, to approach that literally will not be easy — the monastery of St. George Hozevita. This orthodox monastery is considered one of the oldest in the world, he is in the territory of the valley Celt, among expanses of the Judean Desert. The building of the monastery was built on the slope of the cliff closest to the monastery settlement is an ancient city of Jericho, they are separated by about 5 kilometers.
Amazing Monastery of St. George Hozevita was built in the 6th century, from afar its modest buildings resemble swallows’ nests hanging over a high cliff. The monastery is built entirely of stone and is incredibly beautiful, it has remained an old chapel and a variety of religious artifacts. History of the building of the monastery is very interesting, one of the legends, it was built next to a secluded cave, where for three years and six months in hiding prophet Elijah. They built the monastery five Syrian monks, who managed to find the legendary cave.
Later, in 480 from Egypt came to the monastery of St. John Chozeba, which significantly expanded the building and added to its new facilities. Among the priceless religious relics, which today can be seen by visitors of the monastery, relics of St. John Hozevita and John Romanian power. An important relic of the skull are considered monks, martyrs, who lived in the monastery in the early 17th century, and they fell at the hands of the Persian conquerors. Within the walls of the monastery is kept a lot of interesting historical artifacts, so it will be interesting to see everything.
Chapel Saint-Michel d’Egil, France
Year of occurrence: 962 Height: 100 meters. In the tiny French town of Le Puy-en-Velay is the famous chapel of Saint-Michel d’Egil. The world-famous attraction that made the unusual location of the chapel, it was built on top of a hill, whose height is 100 meters. To climb to the top of the cliff and see the old chapel in the immediate vicinity, should overcome a long ladder, which has 268 steps. Fearless travelers who are not afraid to climb the steep stairs, will be richly rewarded — the cliff tops them an unforgettable view on the tiny town and its surroundings.
Construction of the chapel began in 962, under the direction of the bishop of Puy, so he decided to celebrate an important event — the return of the St. Michael’s pilgrimage. The very first chapel was a small chapel with three apses, and in the 12th century religious buildings the scale has been expanded significantly. Apart from the two chapels and bell tower was built here and the outpatient clinic.
The hill on top of which is an old chapel, is an important archaeological site. As we found out during the excavations, even in the prehistoric era to the top of the hill was located a Roman sanctuary, here the inhabitants of ancient Rome sacrificed to the god Mercury. Chapel hides a lot of secrets that never cease to amaze even experienced researchers. In the mid-20th century during the regular research scientists were able to discover the hiding place of the sacred Christian relics. Today they can see everyone, the findings have been presented in the main chapel.
The Potala Palace, Tibet
Year of appearance: 1645. Height: 170 meters. Area: 360,000 sq. meters. In Lhasa, the Tibetan amidst the scenic mountains of the famous Potala Palace — the highest of the oldest structures on the planet. Palace is located at an altitude of 3767 meters above sea level, the location of the palace hill top of Marpa was chosen Ri. The Potala Palace is the largest monumental structure in the territory of Tibet, it occupies the whole top of the hill and its slopes. The height of the layered construction is also quite impressive and is 170 meters.
Potala — complicated palace complex, which in addition to the royal palace itself includes massive temple complex. The total construction area of 360 thousand square meters. meters, for many years the palace was the main residence of the Dalai Lama. For Buddhists, the Potala Palace and today is of great religious significance, and a wide range of tourists it is known as an interesting museum.
According to historical records, the construction of the palace complex was started in 1645 under the leadership of the Dalai Lama, the V, three years later, the construction of the White Palace was completed. So far, the architecture of the palace complex is considered to be unique, it is an incredible combination of numerous buildings, steep stairs and terraces. Not surprisingly, for the construction of the palace in the 17th century have been invited to the best craftsmen from Tibet, China and Nepal. Visitors to the palace will be able to stroll through the spacious pavilions to look into the living quarters, which once belonged to mentor and regent of the Dalai Lama. On the territory of the palace complex is the famous cave of Fa-Wan — an important Buddhist attraction.